After 7.5 years in NEC Laboratories Europe, I have decided to take on a new challenge and joined Huawei’s German Research Center in Munich as the CTO for Virtual Networking and IP on October 1st 2016.
I am grateful for NEC’s support of my work in the past and especially for the colleagueship at NEC Labs Europe and NEC Corporation and for being given the opportunity for working with so many cool people.
I have now decided to move on and am looking forward to working with new colleagues (and esteemed collaborators) on topics that are close to my heart: evolving the Internet, embracing computer science, data centricity, distributed computing, programmability and automation.
With the Internet of Things, the next-generation of mobile networks being developed, the possibilities of experimenting with new concepts thanks to virtualization and programmability, redesigning network function platforms and overall architectures, and with applying recent work in machine learning, I am really excited to explore and experiment with new ideas and new tools in networking.
Are you interested in making a dent in networking? Come work with me in Munich. Do you want to collaborate in research and Open Source projects? Please feel to contact me at Dirk.Kutscher@Huawei.com.
We (ICNRG) published RFC 7927 on Information-Centric Networking (ICN) Research Challenges.
This memo describes research challenges for Information-Centric Networking (ICN), an approach to evolve the Internet infrastructure to directly support information distribution by introducing uniquely named data as a core Internet principle. Data becomes independent from location, application, storage, and means of transportation, enabling or enhancing a number of desirable features, such as security, user mobility, multicast, and in-network caching. Mechanisms for realizing these benefits is the subject of ongoing research in the IRTF and elsewhere. This document describes current research challenges in ICN, including naming, security, routing, system scalability, mobility management, wireless networking, transport services, in-network caching, and network management.
Information-Centric Networking (ICN) is an approach to evolve the Internet infrastructure to directly support accessing Named Data Objects (NDOs) as a first-order network service. Data objects become independent of location, application, storage, and means of transportation, allowing for inexpensive and ubiquitous in-network caching and replication. The expected benefits are improved efficiency and security, better scalability with respect to information/bandwidth demand, and better robustness in challenging communication scenarios.
ICN concepts can be deployed by retooling the protocol stack: name-based data access can be implemented on top of the existing IP infrastructure, e.g., by allowing for named data structures,
ubiquitous caching, and corresponding transport services, or it can be seen as a packet-level internetworking technology that would cause fundamental changes to Internet routing and forwarding. In summary, ICN can evolve the Internet architecture towards a network model based on named data with different properties and different services.
This document presents the ICN research challenges that need to be addressed in order to achieve these goals. These research challenges are seen from a technical perspective, although business relationships between Internet players will also influence developments in this area. We leave business challenges for a separate document, however. The objective of this memo is to document the technical challenges and corresponding current approaches and to expose requirements that should be addressed by future research work.
Mobile network designs have to meet several, at first sight contradicting, requirements: maximize resource utilization, provide optimal performannce (user-perceived quality of experience), enable operator-defined “fair usage” policies, maintain user privacy and minimize management complexity.
For 5G networks, virtual network slicing is often mentioned as one the desirable properties, i.e., the ability to run virtual networks for different application classes (service slicing) or different customer groups (MVNOs etc.) over the same physical infrastructure. Virtualizing networks over a larger set of shared resources (radio networks, backhaul, data centers) requires effective and efficient means for capacity sharing.
Capacity sharing can be done in different ways: traditionally, telco network capacity sharing has been inspired by telephony network architectures with an emphasis on control plane-based monitoring, resource allocation and configuration. Such approaches often involve traffic management systems that monitor performance, load etc. of network elements, analyze traffic properties (for example, DPI-based traffic inspection) and configure network elements such as base station and gateways to implement certain rate limits based on operator policies.
Three trends make this difficult in present and future networks:
- with virtualization, slicing etc., the effort of analyzing every single tenant’s flows can be increasingly prohibitive;
- encryption-by-default with HTTP2 and other protocols that employ connection-based encryption renders DPI-based approaches costly (at best — if not impossible); and
- Internet protocols and applications such TCP (transport layer) and DASH-based video streaming over HTTP (application layer) are themselves adaptive to congestion, delay and overall observed performance. New protocols with specific requirements are invented all the time (think IoT, Virtual Reality). Interfering with their control loops through network traffic management may yield bad performance, suboptimal user preference and higher cost overall.
The idea of enabling an effective capacity sharing with a productive cooperation of operator policy decision making and dynamic application/user resource utilization has driven the work in the IETF ConEx working group. Based on earlier work by Bob Briscoe on Re-Feedback, the ConEx WG has defined concepts and (experimental) mechanisms for congestion exposure, enabling a form of capacity sharing that incentivizes senders to respond to congestion signals, while still enabling operators with hooks for auditing and enforcing correct behavior.
RFC 7778 describes how the ConEx mechanisms can be applied to current LTE (EPS) networks, considering their specifics regarding QoS and network architecture. For example, RFC 7778 described how ConEx can
- enable or enhance flow policy-based traffic management;
- reduce the need for complex DPI by allowing for a bulk packet traffic management system that does not have to consider either the application classes flows belong to or the individual sessions; and how it can
- be used to more effectively trigger the offload of selected traffic to a non-3GPP network.
More experiments with ConEx and related capacity sharing mechanisms are needed, but the questions behind ConEx remain important for 5G (and beyond…): How to achieve an effective collaboration of networks and their users (senders and receivers) considering increased need for capacity sharing, increased demand for user privacy (connection encryption) and the permissionless innovation feature of the Internet, i.e., not expecting the network to know all possible application classes and their traffic management requirements.
Current 5G network discussion are often focusing on providing more comprehensive and integrated orchestration and management functions in order to improve “end-to-end” managebility and programmability, derived from NGMN and similar requirements. While these are important challenges, this memo takes the perspective that in order to arrive at a more powerful network, it is important to understand the pain points and the reasons for certain design choices of today’s networks. Understanding the drivers for traffic management systems, middleboxes, CDNs and other application-layer overlays should be taken as a basis for analyzing 5G uses cases and their requirements. In this memo, I am making the point that many of today’s business needs and the ambitious 5G use cases do call for a more powerful data forwarding plane, taking ICN as an example. Features of such a forwarding plane would include better support for heterogeneous networks (access networks and whole network deployments), multi-path communication, in-network storage and implementation of operator policies. This would help to avoid overlay silos and finally simplify network management.
5G is the current title for much of the network system work in the telco industry these days. All companies, SDOs and industry fora are now working on 5G technologies. There seems to be a rough consensus on requirements and use cases, and first proposals seem to suggest that the design and the implementation will have something to do with SDN/NFV. In general, the assumptions are that 5G will be faster (thanks to better radio), larger (intended to cover more connected devices due to IoT, smart city, new markets), more flexible (network programmability), and converged (unification of mobile and fixed network access/core).
The implications for the actual system architecture and the way we will communicate in the future are not that clear. Some of the current proposals seems to suggest a network platform that is going to provide significant application support in the network. Other proposals seem to be targeted at trying to apply SDN/NFV to the design.
In this memo, I am making the point that the design of a new system architecture and the formulation of requirements for that should be based on a good understanding of the realities and problems of today’s networks. I am claiming that we should use the tools we have now developed like NFV, SDN but also knowledge about efficient transport, content distribution, security to rethink network and system architecture.
I will start with a discussion of pain points in today’s networks, before I address popular 5G use cases as proposed by NGMN. I am assessing a few 5G design options and formulate a constructive proposal as conclusion.
- The views presented here are my own.
- This is based on a recent presentation I did on this topic. If you are interested, please find the presentation material here: “Security and Transport Performance in 5G“.
The commercial success of today’s mobile and fixed networks is clearly based on the success of the Internet and the web. Web applications are hugely popular, especially web-based video video services. It’s a bit ironic that these applications are sometimes called Over-the-Top (OTT) applications (from a network operator perspective) — clearly these are the applications — there are essentially no other applications that are of interest to users (except for audio telephony which is still treated as a special application).
Current networks are largely leveraging Internet technologies (namely IP) — however we had to develop a large set of additional gear to make a useful service out of it.
For example, mobility management: Based on the “seamless connectivity” service requirement LTE employs an anchor-point-based mobility approach, implementing through tunneling (either GTP- or proxy-MIP-based). This concept lends itself to a centralized design with the usual inefficiency and scalability problems — hence people have started inventing technologies like Selected Traffic Offload when they figured out that most users actually just want to access a web resource — for which seamless IP connectivity is not necessarily required. Current work in the IETF DMM WG and in 3GPP is concerned with generalizing this principle towards decentralized mobility management.
Most extra work needs to be done on the performance side: TCP proxies, traffic management systems, application traffic optimizers, CDNs.
Figure 1 contrasts the theoretic architecture with a more typical implementation.
Figure 1: Mobile Network Performance Enhancing Functions (Copyright 2015 NEC)
The motivation for this extra functionality is as follows:
- TCP proxies are tools for mobile operators for tuning network performance with respect to their requirements. TCP’s end-to-end congestion control does not work so well when it has to bridge heterogeneous networks with different causes for delays and packet loss. One of the reasons it does not work so well especially in mobile networks is actually the design of the system as a virtual-circuit-like service: Significant buffering, variable latency, no AQM, no congestion notification. So as a result, you end up with proxies that manipulate the flow/generation of ACKs to trick senders etc. This is typically really helping performance — otherwise, I hope, these boxes would not be deployed, because they are also creating some problems.[Honda-2011]
- Traffic management systems have a similar motivation: give operators a tool for implementing performance & capacity sharing policies. There are really different implementations of this concept, but in general, these systems typically work like this: a centralized traffic management system collects real-time and long-term load and performance-related data from base stations, routers etc. and uses that to configure policers on gateways, base stations etc. The policies may be flow-specific (e.g., to reduce current congestion contribution of specific flow) or application-type-specific (enforce specific treatment of a group of flows) etc. Surely, it does not sound like a terribly elegant or scalable approach — but it is done nevertheless because IP itself does not provide sufficient traffic management features itself, so that some of this could be done in-band. Another reason is that without AQM and ECN, such management-based approaches are perceived as the only option to have the network re-act to overload.
- Application-traffic optimizers are mainly video optimizers these days. Their job is caching, pacing, transcoding of video traffic, e.g., youTube. There may be other purposes such as user behavior analytics, statistics etc. These systems are implemented as a transparent chain of traffic classifiers, load balancers and the actual application function. TCP/IP per se does not offer caching on the network/transport layer and explicit HTTP proxies have interoperability problems, so this motivates this implementation approach. Obviously, this will all become more difficult/expensive as more encryption is deployed, e.g., through HTTP/2.
- Network/application server cooperation. An extended variant of traffic management is the Mobile Traffic Throughput Guidance proposal. This is about sharing base station and other relevant information to application servers outside the operator domain to enable applications (video senders) to adapt faster and more proactively. Again, this is done because of a perceived lack of corresponding network/transport layer functionality.
- CDN deployment is ubiquitous these days. No major web service is deployed without it. CDNs are large-scale content distribution/management networks that provide functions such as pro-active distribution, caching, transcoding, filtering etc. There are different CDN providers, and some operators actually own or cooperate closely with CDN providers. A typical deployment is to run CDN nodes close to the operator network, e.g., in a co-location point, although there is a trend to move CDNs deeper into the network. CDNs are essentially like large-scale application-traffic optimizers. But since CDN nodes are normally on the direct path for all user traffic, they require explicit redirection which is done through DNS-based resolution of DNS names to operator (telco or DNS) CDN nodes. But as on-path application traffic optimizers, CDNs have problems with respect to encryption, i.e., they normally cannot intercept TLS communication between a user and a orign server without impersonating that server. The reason that TLS and CDN still works today is that CDN nodes today are configured with their own certificates for a certain domain (e.g., “cdn.example.com”) that are linked to a valid trust chain so that users’ browsers accept those certificates. While this works, it should be mentioned that this is still problematic from an e2e encryption perspective. The user actually expected an encrypted communication channel between her application and the application server on the orign server, but what she gets is merely an encrypted connection to the next CDN node.
- Transport encryption will proliferate very fast due to the integration of TLS into HTTP/2 and the “always encrypt” policy in major web browsers. It will see a significant uptake once CDNs start deploying it, i.e., also as adapters to legacy HTTP/1.1 servers. As mentioned above, it will render most of the existing traffic management and application traffic optimizers useless or at least make it more expensive to use them. This is creating quite some concerns on the mobile operator side — which fuels current discussions on if and how the network, user application, and application servers should cooperate for exchanging at least some traffic management information in the presence of ubiquitous encryption (cf. IAB/GSMA MARNEW workshop). Unfortunately, according to some views at least, such management information cannot be (reliably) transferred in an IP or TCP header today, so there is discussion about creating overlay solutions with better support for signaling management and other meta information.
Summarizing, it is not surprising that we need a significant amount of gear in today’s network to make them work and perform well: IP forwarding concepts and the whole network architecture were not designed for this scale of commercial deployment, for specific business needs and performance requirements.
Unfortunately, we had to hack the system to some extent to get this functionality integrated: localized congestion control loops require transparent (and brittle) TCP proxies. The lack of in-network visibility of imminent congestion on multiple bottleneck made us resort to management-based approaches, and the lack of network/transport caching as well as the lack for policy-based request forwarding gave us CDN. I did not mention much about problems, but lack of true end-to-end security in the presence of connection-based security and CDN is certainly a big one. The fact that CDN and the DNS-based cache selection is essentially only an overlay over the network shows when we try to do multipath communication in an CDN network. I could go on.
These things are really normal when systems grow over time and people learn what is needed, what did work well, what did not work so well etc. At some point, you have learned enough that you can build a new system.
5G Use Cases and Requirements
The mobile operator industry has been trying to approach the 5G topic by formulating the following use cases in the NGMN 5G White Paper:
- Broadband access in dense areas (“Pervasive Video”)
- Broadband access everywhere (“50+ Mbps Everywhere”)
- Higher User mobility (“High-Speed Train”)
- Massive Internet of Things (“Sensor Networks”)
- Extreme real-time communications (“Tactile Internet”)
- Lifeline communications (“Natural Disaster”)
- Ultra-reliable communications (“E-Health Services”)
- Broadcast-like services (“Broadcast Services”)
The NGMN White Paper does not claim this list to be exhaustive. I would add Affordable Access as another use case, i.e., along the lines of what is discussed in the Global Access to the Internet for All (GAIA) community.
Also, what is not explicitly mentioned is industry networks (also known as Industry-4.0 in some communities), i.e., the concept to 1) use Internet and virtual networking technology and platforms for factory networks and the like, and 2) to interconnect industry sites. Obviously for both cases, the challenge would be guaranteeing upper latency bounds, reliability — when running over a multiplexed network infrastructure.
Finally, I would like to add The next use case to the list, i.e., I would like to emphasize the need to keep the network open for future innovations that cannot be planned or imagined today. This has to do with permissionless innovation, avoiding in-network silos, creating a powerful general-purpose platform.
Everyone has their own interpretation when it comes to deriving requirements, but in my view the following can be inferred:
- 5G access will be much more heterogeneous with respect to link layer properties, bandwidth, latency, availability. For example, extremely high frequency communication such as mmWave communication is sometimes mentioned. This would offer super-high throughput and low latency, however only in very small cells. It has interesting challenges, for example, ramping up sending rates in a TCP session with peers on the Internet or managing connectivity for mobile users. Then there are very constrained networks in IoT scenarios, or cheap but low-bandwidth radios in GAIA scenarios. Finding a good network abstraction for all these different kinds of networks seems to be an interesting challenge.
- Use cases such as broadband access everywhere and tactile Internet require a super low latency — especially the latter would not tolerate full path delay, so would need some local communication possibilities (e.g., through caching or edge computing).
- Related to the increased heterogeneity, I also predict that mobile devices would have more simultaneous access options, i.e., they’d be able to select interface or how to use them in parallel depending on performance requirements and cost constraints.
- Lifeline communication e.g., in disaster scenarios would call for a network that is able to provide useful services in the presence of fragmentation, loss of core network connectivity etc. The GreenICN project has investigated this intensively. Clearly, centralized control and gateways would not lend themselves to such scenarios.
5G Design Options
In the current design discussions I am aware of, there are few ideas that come up frequently:
- Data/control plane split through SDN: this is essentially the idea to design switch capabilities and a programmable interface for enabling controllers to program GTP processing behavior. It’s a straightforward idea for generalizing PDN-GW platforms, but it’s clearly orthogonal to the requirements listed above.
- Simplified mobile core: Accepting the fact that not all mobile applications would need perfect mobility management and seamless connectivity, one idea is to simplify the architecture in a way that it provides a layered service stack, i.e., with a minimal baseline layer that is less complicated and less costly to operate. This could actually help with performance improvement goals.
- Sliced network architecture: Potentially based on the simplified mobile network idea, there are also proposals to apply virtualization to the mobile network and to offer separate slices. There are two variants to this: Multitenancy for MVNOs and Quality of Service Slicing. Multitenancy for MVNOs is relatively straightforward and is essentially about allowing MVNOs deeper access to a physical network operator’s network through virtualizing most core and access network functions, including base stations.
- Quality of Service Slicing: another view on slicing is to offer individual Quality-of-Service slices (like the not so frequently used QCI classes in UMTS and LTE). For example, there would be the best-effort slice, the interactive multi-media slide, the IoT slice etc. It’s really like mapping traditional QoS to virtual network concepts — with similar problems: how would an operator know which slice configurations will be needed in the future? How would an applicaton or a user select slices? How would such a system correspond to network neutrality requirements — how would it maintain the permission-less innovation feature of the Internet?
- (Deep) In-network caching and computing: For use cases such as “Tactile Internet”, but also for more profane applications such as IoT gateways and caching in the access network, there are many ideas for moving such functions deeper into the network. Industry initiatives such as Mobile Edge Computing are pursuing this in a limited fashion today.Technically, this would be about managing IaaS and about shifting function containers to the right place in the network. More future-looking proposals are assuming arbitrary application layer compute functions in arbitrary places in the network. There are different motivations by different players: Network operators see this as an opportunity to “create value” for their networks, i.e., offering platforms that can host such functions. CDN providers see this is an opportunity to extend their platform, both in terms of reach as well as functionality (Akamai). If you extend a CDN massively you could effectively run an overlay multicast distribution network. Again, the shortcoming of the underlying network and transport layer are motivating factors for doing this as an overlay.
- Network service programmability and orchestration: Extending the in-network compute concept, you could also envision a distributed programmable platform that would offer more flexible programmability than just pushing containers to specified locations. For example, a next-generation Mobile-TV provider could operate a multicast-overlay in an operator network, with functions chains for caching, transcoding etc. The distribution, run-time management etc. would then be subject to an application-independent orchestration function. This idea is also motivated by the “value creation” proposition, i.e., network operators would provide the platform and orchestration functions to application service developers/providers. (cf. SONATA project).
Silos in the Network
The last two approaches raise interesting questions as to how manageable this approach would be in the end. There are most likely many CDN providers who would want to run their functions deeper in the network. Then there are also specific applications that require some caching but would not want to use external CDNs platforms, for example video-on-demand services. As a result, you could end up with a collection of silos, each with their specific overlay as depicted in figure 2.
Figure 2: Overlay Silos (Copyright 2015 NEC)
The “deep silo” approach is also motivated by the connection-based communication and security model. Because it is not really possible to share data (while maintaining security properties such as access control rights, authenticity) in the network, we tend to build silos that are centered around the model of enabling a connection to a named server.
There is a particular risk associated with the “deep silo” approach and security. Assume a large number of virtualized CDN nodes, each of those maintaining certificates and public keys for the overall CDN service. Hardening these platforms so that none of these would eventually leak seems to be a major objective. In general, running services on massively distributed software functions deep in the network has risks like this — which makes the overall approach appear questionable in my opinion.
Centralized Control and Orchestration
The orchestration topic highlights a particular problem: the existing shortcomings of the network infrastructure with respect to its forwarding and self-management capabilities already require a worrying collection of management functions as explained in section “Today’s Networks”. Instead of empowering the network, removing the need for transparent middleboxes, overlays etc., we might be taking the need for network management to the extreme — by adding more overlays, more application-layer functions in the network etc.
This is exemplified by misapplying the SDN paradigm towards complete “end-to-end” network control with a network management mindset. Let me explain this: SDN (OpenFlow in particular) was once created as a programmatic interface to enterprise/campus networks that would allow implementing a consistent security policies (isolating nodes on a (virtualized) network). That was motivated by the fact that this is difficult to achieve with the traditional control plane and network management tool set. Also, as mentioned above, IP is really limited with respect to traffic management support, hooks for policy implementation etc.
With OpenFlow, a controller in a local domain is enabled to program forwarding and limited transformation rules into switches in a network so that they could be treated as a virtual switch. This can be done in well-controlled domains (enterprise/campus networks, data centers) and remove the need for some distributed control plane functions and protocols. Since larger parts of mobile networks run in data centers, this is also a valid technology for 5G — as a tool to implement network control to achieve better network flexibility and policy implementation.
What (in my opinion) does not work so well is to elevate the SDN centralized control paradigm to a mantra for network architecture by applying the centralized control concept to the Internet. For example (slightly exaggerating) creating a powerful centralized controller for controlling base station radio communication, transport network, core network, middleboxes, application servers is likely to create a complex and soon ossified system with a gigantic control overhead. Not only will you have to master the timing issues if you want to achieve fine granular control across layers, you will also have to think about domain-to-domain controller interaction (“east/west interfaces”) etc. Anyone remembering “Intelligent Networks”?
Instead, it would be more productive to think about desirable forwarding plane features and proper network abstractions for that — and then use SDN to control networks in a programmatic fashion, i.e., without fine-grained re-active control and without tying network management & orchestration to network programmability.
So, what do to do about 5G? First of all, it is important to understand that “5G” is not going to be a sudden major fork-lift upgrade of the network. It is actually an innovation effort title, and we are going to see changes in phases.
- Optimizing LTE system implementation through NFV and SDN is happening right now. I would also list “Data/control plane split through SDN” in this category. I would not call this core 5G work — it would not change the system architecture and interfaces — but it would be useful in a sense that we improve the infrastructure and explore the potential for more fundamental architecture changes.
- Introduce modern AQM, ECN and transport protocols NOW. A lot of progress has been made in past years (Experimenting with ECN, improving fair queueing and AQM), and it’s about time to get these technologies deployed, especially in the presence of ubiquitous encryption, when DPI-based traffic management has less leverage. It’s really important to reduce latency further and to enable applications to respond and adapt to congestion faster. One work item here is to get the interworking of IP and link layer protocols correct. In that context, it would also be useful to rethink capacity sharing and traffic management. For example, try to learn from the (experimental) IETF ConEx effort to find ways to combine performance, smarter ways of capacity sharing than traditional TCP fairness, and incentives for applications to cooperate better — without requiring a complicated traffic management system to enforce this.
- Enable competition and innovation on the network service provider side: This may sound odd first, but in order to move towards 5G, the anticipated use cases, also including GAIA-inspired services, it would be good if it was easier to start new services, not only as virtual services on top of existing networks. In that context the FCC efforts for spectrum sharing between incumbents and new players are interesting.
- Avoid “Intelligent Networks-2.0″. It may sound tempting to create super-powerful platforms for in-network services, APIs for service creation etc. to create a more valuable network. There may be even a case for certain applications, for example IoT gateways. But be careful when defining use case and requirements without actually talking to stake holders that are building Internet and Web Services. For example, services like youTube would best benefit from an efficient, low-latency bitpipe — not from a network service platform. The fundamental risk is that we are building a very elaborate service platform with powerful orchestration etc. that is just too complicated and costly to use, or may impede innovation by enforcing certain communication forms — so that application service providers would refrain from using it — and do everything “over-the-top”. Or worse, they would start their own network services. If you don’t think this is possible, I recommend taking a look at Project Fi, Google’s MVNO approach. BTW, this is what happened to Intelligent Networks. Their problem was not that you could not build and operate networks that way — IN was just too inflexible for innovation, one of the factors that led to the development of SIP-based VoIP “over the top”.
- Innovate on the forwarding plane. In order to address the performance requirements, especially considering increased access technology heterogeneity and more flexibility with respect to network deployment options thanks to NFV and SDN, we need a more powerful forwarding plane that enables the network to better deal with local bottlenecks, multipath communication opportunities, in-network storage for local repair, data sharing and rate adaptation. This would enable us to let the network handle many important optimization itself — without requiring fine-grained control from network management. It would enable us to provide such functions in an efficient, application-independent way — without creating different silos with similar functionality that is entangled with application-specifics.
Powerful Forwarding Plane
The last point is the motivation for people to look into Information-Centric Networking (ICN) as a 5G forwarding plane. ICN is based on the notion of providing “access to named data” as the fundamental network service. Named data can be packets, Application-Data Units, chunks, or objects. Data is secured (cryptographically bound to a name and/or orign) so that is does not need connection-based security. This facilitates application-independent caching in the network and other functions that are today done in application-specific silos.
ICN routers have better visibility of performance because they can measure interface/path performance in correlation with requests names — for every hop where this is needed. This enables a forwarding plane that is powerful enough to handle challenges such as intermittent connectivity, multiple local bottlenecks, varying path performance — without adding too much complexity. Operators can configure different, powerful, forwarding strategies on individual routers, which is the key to support the different 5G use cases and heterogeneous access networks.
Especially for 5G, ICN would make mobility management much easier — in a way that it would not need the current anchor-based mobility management schemes. For example, requestor hand-over is just a matter of (re-) requesting named data on new network attachment points. ICN forwarding strategies and in-network caching would make this as seamless as today’s managed mobility.
There are different specific ideas on how to make use of ICN in 5G (e.g. Cisco’s). There are also other benefits such as having a unfied communication abstraction for both the mobile network part of 5G and IoT networks that would be better discussed in a separate posting. The important notion is as follows:
- We have learned much about required functionality to make the Internet useful for diverse sets of commercial and non-commercial applications. For many of those we had to revert to application-layer overlays and elaborated network management support. With that knowledge we can now redesign the interplay of network layer, transport layer, and application as well as network management to build better networks.
- The key question to me is to find a suitable network and forwarding plane abstraction, i.e., to define the capabilities of nodes in the network and find a good function split between forwarding plane and SDN control and network management (the latter two are two different things). The general approach for simplification should be to only do things in network management that you cannot do on the network layer. ICN is just an example of how to do design such a function split — and it illustrates the benefits.
- The named data approach is a better fit to modern communication requirements. It provides object security, enables data consumption independent of the current source of the bits, which is turn a prerequisite of in-network caching, device-to-device communication and delay-tolerant communication, all of which is deemed critical for 5G. We have moved from physical circuits to TCP connections — it’s now time to go one step further from telephony towards networked computing.
You might ask what this has to do with SDN and NFV. As mentioned above SDN and NFV are really network implementation approaches and infrastructure operation improvements. NFV is obviously an enabler for innovation in a sense as it enables and automates the deployment of software in the network, including ICN functions. ICN could very well be implemented with SDN.
In fact, ICN may actually enable an interesting evolution of today’s OpenFlow model. In SDN for IP (take OpenFlow as an example), you have to deal with the fact that endpoint identity and next-hop forwarding information is entangled in IP addresses. Consequently, SDN applications typically implement the desired forwarding behavior through header rewriting in order to interwork with existing infrastructure (and to encode additional information in packet headers). Software-Defined ICN would rather have to do with programming Forwarding Information Bases, configuring forwarding strategies and caching policies — so a more pro-active, actual programming-like approach. IP SDN and ICN SDN could well coexists, for example in separate slices in a shared infrastructure.
Again, the important notion for 5G is to emphasize networking capabilities and abstraction — with a focus on performance, application-independence and openness to innovation. The question is not so much whether we should do that or not — but rather who is going to do it. Cisco’s Paul Mankiewich, SP Mobility CTO, has expressed this as follows:
If the network operator industry fails to create an ICN-like architecture then someone like Google will and they will put it behind the SP’s IP transport network.
In fact Google has many ingredients for that already: Project Fi as virtual bitpipe across service providers’ networks, QUIC as a vehicle for redesigning transport and application layer protocols, Google CDN and the whole Google cloud as the infrastructure platform.
In that sense, it might not be too unreasonable to say that those who refuse to learn from the history of Intelligent Networks are doomed to repeat it.
The 2015 ICN conference has started in San Francisco today!
- Tutorials on CCN and NDN
- Posters and demostrations
- Keynote by Van Jacobson: Improving the Internet with ICN
- Paper presentations on Routing, Node Architectures
- Panel: ICN — next two years
- Poster Presentations
- Paper presentation on In-Network Caching, Content & Applications, Security
- Posters and demostrations
I attended last week’s IAB/GSMA Workshop on Managing Radio Networks in an Encrypted World (MaRNEW).
The motivation for this workshop was the increasing trend of applying transport layer end-to-end encryption in major web applications such as Google services, YouTube, Netflix, Facebook and others. This trend will likely increase due to further deployment of HTTP/2 for which client implementations today try to setup TLS connections per default.
In mobile networks, traffic management but also additional services/functions have traditionally relied on being able to leverage knowledge about application type, application specifics. Example for such functions include policing/prioritization, optimized scheduling, caching, filtering, but also tracking, ad-insertion etc. In addition to functions that operators want to apply, there are also regulation requirements (depending on local legislation) for filtering, legal intercepting etc. that would become more difficult in the presence of ubiquitous encryption.
At the MaRNEW workshop, leading experts from network operators, vendors, application service providers, CDN providers and academic institutions discussed the impact of ubiquitous encryption as well as ideas for enabling an effective collaboration between the network, applications and users to enable optimal performance and resource efficiency.
In particular, the workshop addressed the following topics:
- Understanding the bandwidth optimization use cases particular to radio networks;
- Understanding existing approaches and how these do not work with encrypted traffic;
- Understanding reasons why the Internet has not standardised support for legal interception and why mobile networks have;
- Determining how to match traffic types with bandwidth optimization methods;
- Discussing minimal information to be shared to manage networks but ensure user security and privacy;
- Developing new bandwidth optimization techniques and protocols within these new constraints;
- Discussing the appropriate network layer(s) for each management function; and
- Cooperative methods of bandwidth optimization and issues associated with these.
Encryption: Technological and Business Aspects
It is not a secret that there are different aspects for discussing end-to-end encryption in public networks. Obviously, encryption helps with user privacy, and with the background of recent and current revelations of privacy breaches through pervasive monitoring, it has become common agreement that more (easily deployable) encryption would be useful to overcome this.
There is however also the business perspective: the Internet and specifically the eco system of mobile communication and service provision has multiple stake holders, each of those with their particular interests: network operators want to provide a useful service, in an economical way and may have an interest to enhance the overall service quality through various technical measures. Application service providers want their particular service to perform well over a range of different networks. Network equipment vendors have their product roadmaps and network architecture preferences etc.
Finally, there are the actual users of the system who have an interest in good quality of experience, cost-efficiency — and privacy. Privacy is not only a concern with respect to (illegal) pervasive monitoring by agencies, but also with respect to maintaining anonymity and confidentiality towards network and service providers. For many applications, user profiles, user-generated data etc. is also a key business asset — so there is a strong interest by different players to either get access to that data — or (depending on the nature of a player) to keep other players from accessing it — through encryption.
The MaRNEW workshop focused on the technological discussion.
Impact of Encryption
During the discussion the following main impacts of ubiquitous encryption on mobile network were identified:
- Traditional ways of identifying and classifying network traffic (DPI) become more costly and potentially infeasible.
- Traditional traffic management systems have relied on such classification, for different purpose: optimizing resource usage in access networks according to operator policies, forwarding of traffic through optimizers, caches etc., as well as filtering. Those approaches and the actual requirements behind them need to be revisited.
- Content and service provisioning in both mobile and fixed networks today is heavily relying on CDN and in-network application functions. In addition, new approaches such as Mobile Edge Computing may shift more of such functions to access networks. The motivation is to provide better performance and cost efficiency through offloading networks (CDN cache hits) and through reducing latency and transport protocol performance (local control loops, reduced RTT to caches). Introducing more and more end-to-end encryption makes it impossible for operators to provide any application (or CDN-provider)-independent optimization functions. The alternative of running individual instances for each individual CDN provider does not seem promising. It could also be a major road block for future network and application innovation — because each of those individual functions might require upgrading to introduce in-network support for it.
(Copyright 2015 NEC)
At the workshop, different solutions were discussed.
- First, it was agreed that the actual impact needs to be understood better and ought to be quantified. For example, assuming that some knowledge about application types (or corresponding service quality expectations) could be leveraged by base stations for more efficient transmission scheduling (e.g., by delaying packets of non-latency-sensitive flows or by operating multiple queues for different flow types), networks should at least be able to obtain corresponding hints from senders. However, the actual impact and potential benefits have to be demonstrated. Operators will work on that issue.
- The (Internet) transport protocol community has made significant progress in recent years on several fronts: Active Queue Management (AQM) such as fq_codel and PIE have been demonstrated to be able to improve load balancing and reduce latency in router queues. Moreover, transport protocol research has led to promising results (for example PCC — Performance-oriented Congestion Control). It was suggested that those mechanisms should be implemented and deployed where possible.
- Several options for Cooperative Traffic Management have been discussed. For example this could included exchanging certain information between the network and senders/receivers. The network could inform endpoints better about congestion and non-congestion-induced problems (for example in an extended ECN fashion), or endpoints could inform the network about relevant meta information (application type, QoS requirements etc.). The latter could leverage existing technologies such as DiffServ. Potentially, it would be sufficient to distinguish delay-sensitive flows (e.g., for interactive real-time) and delay-tolerant flows (file download etc.). One interesting question is how endpoints would be incentivized to use such signaling correctly and how corresponding APIs would look like.
- Overcoming the general limitations of connection-based security and its tendency to require application-specific (or CDN-provider-specific) in-network functions could require a more fundamental rethinking of network architecture and protocol layering. For example, Information-Centric Networking (ICN) would leverage object-security (authentication, encryption), hence enabling the network to implement functions such as caching, local transport strategies etc. in an application manner. This could be of particular relevance for 5G networks where a higher level of dynamicity in the creation and deployment of new OTT services are expected.
For the discussion of such solutions, I (together with several colleagues) have made two contributions to the workshop: 1) Enabling Traffic Management without DPI, and 2) Maintaining Efficiency and Privacy in Mobile Networks through Information-Centric Networking.
Enabling Traffic Management without DPI
- Mirja Kühlewind, Dirk Kutscher, Brian Trammell; Enabling Traffic Management without DPI; IAB/GSMA Workshop on Managing Radio Networks in an Encrypted World (MaRNEW); September 2015
Is DPI really needed for traffic management in mobile networks? Our position is “no”. Traffic management is usually realized through relatively simple mechanisms like rate shaping, prioritization, and dropping packets. Compared to these mechanisms, the semantics of applications that can be exposed through DPI are much richer; traffic classification anyway maps these semantics down to a simple set of categories.
The question then arises whether operators are really helped by brittle, insecure and expensive mechanisms for gaining higher fidelity information for the coarse traffic information for traffic management, or whether simple signaling would suffice for traffic classification for mobile network management purposes.
Obviously, when relying on endpoints to signal information about the underlying application which may be used to change the network’s treatment of that application’s traffic, questions of trust arise: how can the network be sure the endpoints are being honest, and prevent endpoints from gaming the system to their advantage (and the disadvantage of others); can these signaling approaches be used as an attack vector. Here the approach is to define the vocabulary of the signaling protocol to properly incentivize honest cooperation, while allowing the network to verify this cooperation.
We discuss two application-independent approaches for traffic management that are based on network-compatible metrics: ConEx Policing and low latency support with SPUD.
Congestion Exposure (ConEx) is a mechanism that enables senders to inform the network about previously encountered congestion in flows thus enabling senders and network infrastructure to respond to congestion based on operator policies. This information is provided in the IP header and can still be accessed even if the payload is encrypted. ConEx information is auditable by comparing the congestion level at network egress to the ConEx signal which incentivizes the sender to state its congestion contribution correctly.
Using ConEx would allow for a bulk packet traffic management system that does not have to consider application classes. Instead, with ConEx accurate downstream path information on incipient congestion are visible to ingress network operators. This information can be used to base traffic management on the actual current cost (which is the contribution to congestion of each flow) and enable operators to apply congestion-based policing/accounting depending on their preference and independent of application characteristics. Such traffic management would be simpler, more robust (no real-time flow application type identification required, no static configuration of application classes) and provide better performance as decisions can be taken based on the real actual cost contribution at each point in time.
The Substrate Protocol for User Datagrams (SPUD) is a new approach to selective information exposure designed to support transport evolution. SPUD is realized as a shim between UDP and an (encrypted) transport protocol. The basic SPUD protocol provides minimal sub-transport functionality by grouping of packets together into tubes and signaling of the start and end of a tube.
This will assist middleboxes in state setup and teardown along the path. Further, SPUD provides an extensible signaling mechanism based on a type-value encoding for associating properties with individual packets or all packets in a tube. The SPUD protocol can be used to signal low latency requirements from an endpoint to the network, or expose the existence of support for such services from the network to the endpoint. Therefore we propose to provide four SPUD signals: a latency sensitivity flag, a signal to yield to another tube, an application preference for a maximum single queue delay, and a facility to discover the maximum possible single queue length along the path.
Based on the latency-sensitivity flag a network operator can implement an additional service (as compared to today’s best effort service) that uses smaller queues and/or different AQM parameters without changing the service that is provided today. Signaling of lower queue priority or maximum single hop delay can further be used to preferentially drop packets of the same sender or within one flow. Information about expected queuing delays on the path can be used for buffer configuration at the endpoints.
The proposal is not intended as a blueprint for immediate implementation — but it demonstrates how cooperative traffic management could be implemented. In our view, cooperative traffic management requires a solid understanding of the interactions with transport layer and the corresponding performance impacts/improvements.
Maintaining Efficiency and Privacy in Mobile Networks through Information-Centric Networking
- Dirk Kutscher, Giovanna Carofiglio, Luca Muscariello, Paul Polakos; Maintaining Efficiency and Privacy in Mobile Networks through Information-Centric Networking; IAB/GSMA Workshop on Managing Radio Networks in an Encrypted World (MaRNEW); September 2015
We present a solution to overcome the impasse of deploying confidentiality at the cost of breaking most of current network traffic engineering in mobile networks. Our proposition is based on Information-Centric Networking (ICN) which is a data-centric network architecture that gracefully incorporates security and traffic optimization.
Content-based security instead of connection based is the foundation of the Information-Centric Networking (ICN) architecture. In ICN, we provide a network service that directly implements the desired information-access abstraction. The network forwards requests for named data and corresponding responses containing the data. The name can be cryptographically bound to the data for ascertaining authenticity. This enables the network to replicate data objects in arbitrary locations, thus enabling ubiquitous caching. Object data can also be encrypted for user privacy, leaving other network-relevant information such as the name intact – thus maintaining options for traffic management, policing etc. The performance gains of having ICN in the mobile backhaul have been evaluated experimentally (see paper). ICN incorporates these ideas into a novel network layer providing all of the mentioned objectives without using man-in-the-middle like solutions.
ICN secures data itself by requiring producers to cryptographically sign every data packet: the signature constitutes the integrity meta-data. The data is uniquely identified by a name that is bound to the data via the signature. The producer’s public key to implement signature verification can be obtained by using the KeyLocator field which can be the name of the data containing the key of the producer. Authentication is implemented via the producer’s key that makes use of a trust model, e.g. PKI, Web-of-Trust that can be extended using key chaining to delegate trust to different sub-namespaces (for hierarchical naming). Confidentiality is obtained by encryption of the data payload using the producer’s key. Notice that authenticity, integrity and confidentiality are independent features.
Once data is published by the producer it can be stored in any location without affecting the security properties of the data which are location independent. Inter-networking of encrypted data is included by design in ICN and in-network caching is always possible with or without confidentiality. Authenticity might not be necessary in many cases so the authentication of the identity of the producer is optional. It is not mandatory either to verify the integrity of the data by verification of the signature. It is important to remark that ICN disantangles authenticity, privacy and integrity so that they can be handled in different ways and without the interaction of end-hosts.
TLS provides web security by encrypting a layer 4 connection between two hosts. Authenticity is provided by the web of trust (certification authorities and a public key infrastructure) to authenticate the web server and symmetric cypher on the two end points based on a negotiated key. In presence of TLS many networking operations become unfeasible: filtering, caching, acceleration, trans-coding.
ICN takes a radically different approach to guarantee confidentiality, authenticity and integrity by embedding them into a redefined network layer. Indeed, ICN builds on the abstraction of data requested, accessed, cached and forwarded by name: the network forwards requests coming from the consumer for named data and routes back data packets on the identical reverse path (symmetric routing).
The ICN communication model allows network nodes between a web server and a web client to operate as forwarding and storage functions to implement various inter-networking functionalities like caching or load balancing without relaxing any security feature. As a fully fledged data-centric network architecture, ICN incorporates mobility, storage, security and multi-point communication by design.
Join us for the ICN-2015 Conference in San Francisco from Sep. 30 to Oct. 2.
ACM ICN is an annual conference of the ACM Special Interest Group on Data Communication (SIGCOMM) on information-centric networking.
In a nutshell, this year’s conference includes
– 1 keynote given by Van Jacobson
– 19 full papers presented in single track format
– 8 posters
– 10 demos
– 2 full-day tutorials
– 1 industrial panel
– Van Jacobson, Internet pioneer and core architect of Named Data
Networking (NDN), will talk about “Improving the Internet with ICN”.
– CCN: Practical CCNx – Protocol and Code
– NDN: Security & Synchronization in Named Data Networking (NDN)
– Next Steps for ICN: Research, Applications, Deployment and Economics
Topics of papers, posters, and demos include:
– Architecture design and evaluation
– Comparison of ICN architecture proposals
– Limits and limitations of ICN architectures
– ICN evaluation methodology and metrics
– Evaluation of ICN benefits
– Analysis of scalability issues in ICN
– ICN enabled applications
– Routing in ICN networks
– Mobility support
– Trust management
– Access control mechanisms
– ICN economics and business models
– Tools and experimentation facilities
– Measurement methodologies
– Experience from implementations and experiments
– Specific scenarios and implementation approaches
– Feasibility studies for high speed networking
– ICN Deployment
– ICN APIs
Check out the program.
ICN is an approach to evolve the Internet infrastructure to directly support information distribution by introducing uniquely named data as a core Internet principle. Data becomes independent from location, application, storage, and means of transportation, enabling in-network caching and replication. This enables the design of more robust, secure and better performing networked systems.
This week, more than 100 researchers got together to discuss recent advances in protocol development, performance optimizations, user privacy and new use cases.
One of the protocols that are developed in ICNRG is CCNx, a network protocol that provides requests (Interests) for named data and Content Object responses. The protocol semantics are specified in draft-irtf-icnrg-ccnxsemantics, and the protocol format is specified in draft-irtf-icnrg-ccnxmessages. The ICN community is currently discussing several extensions to the protocol, including support for “manifest” objects, which would facilitate the distribution of larger, chunked objects and add additional performance and flexibility to ICN systems.
Another highlight of the meeting was a presentation by Iannis Psaras from UCL on Solving the Congestion Problem using ICNPrinciples, an approach that is using Resource Pooling as a tool to manage uncertainty in congestion management.
Vasilis Sourlas (UCL) presented Information Resilience through User-Assisted Caching in Disruptive Content-Centric Networks. The corresponding paper won the IFIP 2015 best paper award and describes work from the GreenICN project. The approach relies on a modified NDN router design that features a “Satisfied Interest Table” (SIT) that enables user-assisted caching.
Bengt Ahlgren (SICS) presented on the Applicability and Tradeoffs of ICN for Efficient IoT (draft-lindgren-icnrg-efficientiot). This document outlines the tradeoffs involved in utilizing Information Centric Networking (ICN) for the Internet of Things (IoT) scenarios. It describes the contexts and applications where the IoT would benefit from ICN, and where a host-centric approach would be better. The requirements imposed by the heterogeneous nature of IoT networks are discussed (e.g., in terms of connectivity, power availability, computational and storage capacity). Design choices are then proposed for an IoT architecture to handle these requirements, while providing efficiency and scalability. An objective is to not require any IoT specific changes of the ICN architecture per se, but we do indicate some potential modifications of ICN that would improve efficiency and scalability for IoT and other applications.
Dirk Trossen (Inter Digital) presented IPoverICN – the Better IP?, a presentation of the EU-H2020 POINT project that is developing an IP over ICN system. The hypothesis of this project is that IPoverICN has the potential to run IP services better than in standard IP networks.
Mark Stapp (Cisco) presented on Private Communication in ICN. This presentation asks the question whether ICN needs better privacy protection to achieve parity with IP for user privacy in the presence of ubiquitous encryption. The discussion initiated an intensive discussion on privacy requirements for ICN that will continue in upcoming meetings.
Jan Seedorf (NEC) presented on Using ICN in Disaster Scenarios (draft-seedorf-icn-disaster/). This is a presentation of the GreenICN project and summarized some research challenges for coping with natural or human-generated, large-scale disasters. Further, the document discusses potential directions for applying Information Centric Networking (ICN) to address these challenges.
All presentations and detailed notes can be found at the ICNRG Wiki.
This summer will host a series of additional ICN events:
Open Source Software development models are changing the way the telco industry is creating products and systems. This presentation at ONS-2015 discusses how innovation, agile development and Open Source Software are linked together.It presents experience with transforming telco vendor development from closed to open source and provides an outlook of future activities in the NFV space.
Talk Info (Presentation available on request)
OPNFV is a carrier-grade,integrated, open source platform to accelerate the introduction of new Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) products and services.
Arno is a developer-focused release that provides an initial build of the NFV Infrastructure (NFVI) and Virtual Infrastructure Manager (VIM) components of ETSI NFV architecture.
Key capabilities of OPNFV Arno:
- Availability of baseline platform: Arno enables continuous integration, automated deployment and testing of components from upstream projects such as Ceph, KVM, OpenDaylight, OpenStack and Open vSwitch. It allows developers and users to automatically install and explore the platform.
- Ability to deploy and test various VNFs: End users and developers can deploy their own or third party VNFs on Arno to test its functionality and performance in various traffic scenarios and use cases.
- Availability of test infrastructure in community-hosted labs: Agile testing plays a crucial role in the OPNFV platform. With Arno, the project is unveiling a community test labs infrastructure where users can test the platform in different environments and on different hardware. This test labs infrastructure enables the platform to be exercised in different NFV scenarios to ensure that the various open source components come together to meet vendor and end user needs.
- Allows automatic continuous integration of specific components: As upstream projects are developed independently they require testing of various OPNFV use cases to ensure seamless integration and interworking within the platform. OPNFV’s automated toolchain allows continuous automatic builds and verification.
- Press Release: OPNFV Delivers Open Source Software to Enable Deployment of Network Functions Virtualization Solutions