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ACM ICN-2019 Highlights

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ACM ICN-2019 took place in the week of September 23 in Macau, SAR China. The conference was co-located with Information-Centric-Networking-related side events: the TouchNDN Workshop on Creating Distributed Media Experiences with TouchDesigner and NDN before and an IRTF ICNRG meeting after the conference. In the following, I am providing a summary of some highlights of the whole week from my (naturally very subjective) perspective.

University of Macau — the ICN-2019 Venue

Applications

ICN with its accessing named data in the network paradigm is supposed provide a different, hopefully better, service to application compared to the traditional stack of TCP/IP, DNS and application-layer protocols. Research in this space is often addressing one of two interesting research questions: 1) What is the potential for building or re-factoring applications that use ICN and what is the impact on existing designs; and 2) what requirements can be learned for the evolution of ICN, what services are useful on top of an ICN network layer, and/or how should the ICN network layer be improved.

Network Management

The best paper at the conference on Lessons Learned Building a Secure Network Measurement Framework using Basic NDN by Kathleen Nichols took the approach of investigating how a network measurement system can be implemented without inventing new features for the NDN network layer. Instead, Kathleen’s work explored the features and usability support mechanisms that would be needed for implementing her Distributed Network Measurement Protocol (DNMP) in terms of frameworks and libraries leveraging existing NDN. DNMP is secure, role-based framework for requesting, carrying out, and collecting measurements in NDN forwarders. As such it represents a class of applications where applications both send and receive data that is organized by hierarchical topics in a namespace which implies a conceptual approach where applications do not (want to) talk to specific producers but are really operating in an information-centric style.

Communication in such a system involves one-to-many, many-to-one, and any-to-any communications about information (not data objects hosted at named nodes). DNMP employs a publish/subscribe model inspired by protocols such as MQTT where publishers and subscribers communicate through hierarchically structured topics. Instead of existing frameworks for data set reconciliation, with DNMP work includes the development of a lightweight pub/sub sync protocol called syncps that uses Difference Digests, solving the multi-party set reconciliation problem with prior context.

In a role-based system such as DNMP that uses secure Named-Data-based communication, automating authentication and access control is typically a major challenge. DNMP leverages earlier work on Trust Schema but extends this by a Versatile Security Toolkit (VerSec) that integrates with the transport framework to simplify integration of trust rules. VerSec is about to be released under GPL.

I found this paper really interesting to read because it is a nice illustration of what kind of higher layer services and APIs non-trivial application require. Also, the approach of using the NDN network layer as is but implementing additional functionality as libraries and frameworks seems promising with respect to establishing a stable network layer platform where innovation can happen independently on top. Moreover, the paper embraces Information-Centric thinking nicely and demonstrates the concept with a relevant application. Finally, I am looking forward to see the VerSec software which could make it easier for developers to implement rigorous security and validation in the applications.

Distributed Media Experiences

Jeff Burke and Peter Gusev organized the very cool TouchNDN workshop on Creating Distributed Media Experiences with TouchDesigner and NDN at the School of Creative Media at the City University of Hong Kong (summary presentation). The background is that video distribution/access has evolved significantly from linear TV broadcast to todays applications. Yet, many systems still seem to be built in a way that optimizes for linear video streaming to consumer eye balls, with a frame sequence abstraction.

Creative media applications such as Live Show Control (example) exhibit a much richer interaction with digital video, often combing 3D modelling with flexible, non-sequential access to video based on (for example) semantics, specific time intervals, quality layers, or spatial coordinates.

Touchdesigner used for sound reactive 3D object and for mixing a video loop

Combine this with dynamic lightning, sound control and instrumentation of theater effects, and you get an idea of an environment where various pieces of digital media are mixed together creatively and spontaneously. Incidentally, a famous venue for such an installation is the Spectacle at MGM Cotai, close to the venue of ACM ICN-2019 in Macau.

The Spectacle at MGM Cotai – Creative Overview

Derivative’s TouchDesigner is a development platform for such realtime user experiences. It is frequently used for projection mapping, interactive visualization and other applications. The Center for Research in Engineering, Media and Performance (REMAP) has developed an integration of NDN with TouchDesigner’s realtime 3D engine via the NDN-Common-Name-Library stack as a platform for experimenting with data-centric media. The objective is to provide a more natural networked media platform that does not have to deal with addresses (L2 or L3) but enables applications to publish and request media assets in namespaces that reflect the structure of the data. Combing this with other general ICN properties such as implicit multicast distribution and in-network caching results in a much more adequate platform for creating realtime multimedia experiences.

The TouchNDN workshop was one of REMAP’s activities on converging their NDN research with artistic and cultural projects, trying to get NDN out of the lab and into the hands of creators in arts, culture, and entertainment. It is also an eye-opener for the ICN community for learning about trends and opportunities in real-time rendering and visual programming which seems to bear lots of potential for innovation — both from the artistic as well as from the networking perspective.

Personally, I think it’s a great, inspiring project that teaches us a lot about more interesting properties and metrics (flexible access, natural APIs, usability, utility for enabling innovations) compared to the usual quantitative performance metrics from the last century.

Inter-Server Game State Synchronization

Massive Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) allow up to thousands of players to play in the same shared virtual world. Those worlds are often distributed on multiple servers of a server cluster, because a single server would not be able to handle the computational load caused by the large number of players interacting in a huge virtual world. This distribution of the world on a server cluster requires to synchronize relevant game state information among the servers. The synchronization requires every server to send updated game state information to the other servers in the cluster, resulting in redundantly sent traffic when utilizing current IP infrastructure.

In their paper Inter-Server Game State Synchronization using Named Data Networking Philipp Moll, Sebastian Theuermann, Natascha Rauscher, Hermann Hellwagner, and Jeff Burke started from the assumption that ICN’s implicit multicast support and the ability to to decouple the game state information from the producing server could reduce the amount of redundant traffic and also help with robustness and availability in the presence of server failures.

They built a ICNified version of Minecraft and developed protocols for synchronizing game state in a server cluster over NDN. Their evaluation results indicated the benefits on an ICN-based approach for inter-server game state synchronization despite larger packet overheads (compared to TCP/IP). The authors made all their artefacts required for reproducing the results available on github.

Panel on Industry Applications of ICN

I had the pleasure of moderating a panel on industry applications of ICN, featuring Richard Chow (Intel), Kathleen Nichols (Pollere Inc.), and Kent Wu (Hong Kong Applied Science and Technology Research Institute). Recent ICN research has produced various platforms for experimentation and application development. One welcome development consists of initial ICN deployment mechanisms that do not require a forklift replacement of large parts of the Internet. At the same time, new technologies and use cases, such as edge computing, massively scalable multiparty communication, and linear video distribution, impose challenges on the existing infrastructure. This panel with experts from different application domains discussed pain points with current systems, opportunities and promising results for building specific applications with ICN, and challenges, shortcomings, and ideas for future evolution of ICN.

What was interesting to learn was how different groups pick up the results and available software to build prototypes for research and industry applications and what they perceive as challenges in applying ICN.

Decentralization

Growing concerns about centralization, surveillance and loss of digital sovereignty are currently fuelling many activities around P2P-inspired communication and storage networks, decentralized web (“web3”) efforts as well as group such as the IRTF Research Group on Decentralized Internet Infrastructure (DINRG). One particular concern is the almost universal dependency on central cloud platforms for anchoring trust in applications that are actually of a rather local nature such as smart home platforms. Since such platforms often entail rent-seeking or surveillance-based business models, it is becoming increasingly important to investigate alternatives.

NDN/CCN-based ICN with its built-in PKI system provides some elements for an alternative design. In NDN/CCN it is possible to set up secure communication relationships without necessarily depending on third-party platforms which could be leveraged for more decentralized designs of IoT systems, social media and many other applications.

Decentralized and Secure Multimedia Sharing

A particularly important application domain is multimedia sharing where surveillance and manipulation campaigns by the dominant platforms have led to the development of alternative federated social media applications such as Mastodon and Diaspora. In their paper Decentralized and Secure Multimedia Sharing Application over Named Data Networking Ashlesh Gawande, Jeremy Clark, Damian Coomes, and Lan Wang described their design and implementation of npChat (NDN Photo Chat), a multimedia sharing application that provides similar functionality as today’s media-sharing based social networking applications without requiring any centralized service providers.

The major contributions of this work include identifying the specific requirements for a fully decentralized application, and designing and implementing NDN-based mechanisms to enable users to discover other users in the local network and through mutual friends, build friendship via multi-modal trust establishment mirrored from the real world, subscribe to friends’ multimedia data updates via pub-sub, and control access to their own published media.

This paper is interesting in my view because it illustrates the challenges and some design options nicely. It also suggests further research in terms of namespace design, name privacy and trust models. The authors developed an NDN-based prototype for Android systems that is supposed to appear on the Android Play store soon.

Exploring the Relationship of ICN and IPFS

We were happy to have David Dias, Adin Schmahmann, Cole Brown, and Evan Miyazono from Protocol Labs at the conference who held a tutorial on IPFS that also touched upon the relationship of IPFS and some ICN approaches.

Protocol Lab’s InterPlanetary File System (IPFS) is a peer-to-peer content-addressable distributed filesystem that seeks to connect all computing devices with the same system of files. It is an opensource community-driven project, with reference implementations in Go and Javascript, and a global community of millions of users. IPFS resembles past and present efforts to build and deploy Information-Centric Networking approaches to content storage, resolution, distribution and delivery. IPFS and libp2p, which is the modular network stack of IPFS, are based on name-resolution based routing. The resolution system is based on Kademlia DHT and content is addressed by flat hash-based names. IPFS sees significant real-world usage already and is projected to become one of the main decentralised storage platforms in the near future. The objective of this tutorial is to make the audience familiar with IPFS and able to use the tools provided by the project for research and development.

Interestingly IPFS bear quite some similarities with earlier ICN systems such as NetInf but is using traditional transport and application layer protocols for the actual data transfer. One of the interesting research questions in that space are how IPFS system could be improved with today’s ICN technology (as an underlay) but also how the design of a future IPFS-like system could leverage additional ICN mechanisms such as Trust Schema, data set reconciliation protocols, and remote method invocation. The paper Towards Peer-to-Peer Content Retrieval Markets: Enhancing IPFS with ICN by Onur Ascigil, Sergi Reñé, Michał Król et al. explored some of these options.

IoT

IoT is one of the interesting application areas for ICN, especially IoT in constrained environments, where the more powerful forwarding model (stateful forwarding and in-network caching) and the associated possibility for more fine-grained control of storage and communication resources incurs significant optimization potential (which was also a topic at this year’s conference).

QoS Management in Constrained NDN Networks

Quality of Service (QoS) in the IP world mainly manages forwarding resources, i.e., link capacities and buffer spaces. In addition, Information Centric Networking (ICN) offers resource dimensions such as in-network caches and forwarding state. In constrained wireless networks, these resources are scarce with a potentially high impact due to lossy radio transmission. In their paper Gain More for Less: The Surprising Benefits of QoS Management in Constrained NDN Networks Cenk Gündoğan, Jakob Pfender, Michael Frey, Thomas C. Schmidt, Felix Shzu-Juraschek, and Matthias Wählisch explored the two basic service qualities (i) prompt and (ii) reliable traffic forwarding for the case of NDN. The resources that were taken into account are forwarding and queuing priorities, as well as the utilization of caches and of forwarding state space. The authors treated QoS resources not only in isolation, but also correlated their use on local nodes and between network members. Network-wide coordination is based on simple, predefined QoS code points. The results indicate that coordinated QoS management in ICN is more than the sum of its parts and exceeds the impact QoS can have in the IP world.

What I found interesting about his paper is the validation in real-world experiments that demonstrated impressive improvements, based on the coordinated QoS management approach. This work comes timely considering the current ICN QoS discussion in ICNRG, for example in draft-oran-icnrg-qosarch. Also, the authors made their artefacts available on github for enabling reproducing their results.

How Much ICN Is Inside of Bluetooth Mesh?

Bluetooth mesh is a new mode of Bluetooth operation for low-energy devices that offers group-based publish-subscribe as a network service with additional caching capabilities. These features resemble concepts of information-centric networking (ICN), and the analogy to ICN has been repeatedly drawn in the Bluetooth community. In their paper Bluetooth Mesh under the Microscope: How much ICN is Inside? Hauke Petersen, Peter Kietzmann, Cenk Gündoğan, Thomas C. Schmidt, and Matthias Wählisch compared Bluetooth mesh with ICN both conceptually and in real-world experiments. They contrasted both architectures and their design decisions in detail. They conducted experiments on an IoT testbed using NDN/CCNx and Bluetooth Mesh on constrained RIOT nodes.

Interestingly the authors found that the implementation of ICN principles and mechanisms in Bluetooth Mesh is rather limited. In fact, Bluetooth Mesh performs flooding without content caching and merely using the equivalent of multicast addresses as a surrogate for names. Based on these findings, the authors discuss options of how ICN support for Bluetooth could or should look like, so the paper is interesting both for understanding the actual working of Bluetooth Mesh as well as for ideas for improving Bluetooth Mesh. The authors made their artefacts available on github for enabling reproducing their results.

ICN and LoRa

LoRa is an interesting technology for its usage of license-free sub-gigahertz spectrum and bi-directional communication capabilities. We were happy to have Kent Wu and Xiaoyu Zhao from ASTRI at the conference and the ICNRG meeting who talked about their LoRa prototype development for a smart metering system for water consumption in Hong Kong. In addition to that, the ICNRG also discussed different options for integrating ICN and LoRa and got an update by Peter Kietzmann on the state of LoRa support in the RIOT OS. This is an exciting area for innovation, and we expect more work and interesting results in the future.

New Frontiers

Appying ICN to big data storage and processing and to distributed computing are really promising research directions that were explored by papers at the conference.

NDN and Hadoop

The Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) is a network file system used to support multiple widely-used big data frameworks that can scale to run on large clusters. In their paper On the Power of In-Network Caching in the Hadoop Distributed File System Eric Newberry and Beichuan Zhang evaluate the effectiveness of using in-network caching on switches in HDFS- supported clusters in order to reduce per-link bandwidth usage in the network.

They discovered that some applications featured large amounts of data requested by multiple clients and that, by caching read data in the network, the average per-link bandwidth usage of read operations in these applications could be reduced by more than half. They also found that the choice of cache replacement policy could have a significant impact on caching effectiveness in this environment, with LIRS and ARC generally performing the best for larger and smaller cache sizes, respectively. The authors also developed a mechanism to reduce the total per-link bandwidth usage of HDFS write operations by replacing write pipelining with multicast.

Overall, the evaluation results are promising, and it will be interesting to see how the adoption of additional ICN concepts and mechanisms and caching could be useful for big data storage and processing.

Compute-First Networking

Although, as a co-author, I am clearly biased, I am quite convinced of the potential for distributed computing and ICN that we described in a paper co-authored by Michał Król, Spyridon Mastorakis, David Oran, and myself.

Edge- and, more generally, in-network computing is receiving a lot attention in research and industry fora. What are the interesting research questions from a networking perspective? In-network computing can be conceived in many different ways – from active networking, data plane programmability, running virtualized functions, service chaining, to distributed computing. Modern distributed computing frameworks and domain-specific languages provide a convenient and robust way to structure large distributed applications and deploy them on either data center or edge computing environments. The current systems suffer however from the need for a complex underlay of services to allow them to run effectively on existing Internet protocols. These services include centralized schedulers, DNS-based name translation, stateful load balancers, and heavy-weight transport protocols.

Over the past years, we have been working on alternative approaches, trying to find ways for integrating networking and computing in new ways, so that distributed computing can leverage networking capabilities directly and optimize usage of networking and computing resources in a holistic fashion. Here is a summary of our latest paper.

Written by dkutscher

October 4th, 2019 at 12:33 am

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Information-Centric Networking RFCs on CCNx Published

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The Internet Research Task Force (IRTF) has published two Experimental RFCs specifying the node behavior, message semantics, and the message syntax of the CCNx protocol: RFC 8569 (Content-Centric Networking (CCNx) Semantics) and RFC 8609 (Content-Centric Networking (CCNx) Messages in TLV Format). CCNx is one particular variant of ICN protocols. These specifications document the implementation of an available Open-Source implementation and are intended to encourage additional experiments with Information-Centric Networking technologies.

Background

Information-Centric Networking (ICN) is a class of architectures and protocols that provide “access to named data” as a first-order network service. Instead of host-to-host communication as in IP networks, ICNs often use location-independent names to identify data objects, and the network provides the services of processing (answering) requests for named data with the objective to finally deliver the requested data objects to a requesting consumer.

Such an approach has profound effects on various aspects of a networking system, including security (by enabling object-based security on a message/packet level), forwarding behavior (name-based forwarding, caching), but also on more operational aspects such as bootstrapping, discovery etc.

The CCNx and NDN variants of ICN are based on a request/response abstraction where consumers (hosts, applications requesting named data) send INTEREST messages into the network that are forwarded by network elements to a destination that can provide the requested named data object. Corresponding responses are sent as so-called DATA messages that follow the reverse INTEREST path.

Sometimes ICN has been mis-characterized as a solution for in-network caching, possibly replacing CDN. While ICN’s location-independent access and its object-security approach does indeed enable opportunistic in-network data caching (e.g., for local retransmissions, data sharing), it is actually not the main feature — it is actually rather a consequence of the more fundamental properties of 1) accessing named data, 2) object-security and integrated trust model, and 3) stateful forwarding.

Accessing Named Data

Each unique data object is named unambiguously in a hierarchical naming scheme and can be validated in a means specified by the producer, i.e., the origin source. (Data objects can also optionally be encrypted in different ways). The naming concept and the object-based validation approach lay the foundation for location independent operation, because data validity can be ascertained by any node in the network, regardless of where the corresponding messages was received from.

The network can generally operate without any notion of location, and nodes (consumers, forwarders) can forward requests for named data objects directly, i.e., without any additional address resolution. Location independence also enables additional features, for example the possibility to replicate and cache named data objects. Opportunistic on-patch caching is thus a standard feature in many ICN systems — typically for enhancing reliability and performance.

Naming data and application-specific naming conventions are naturally important aspects in ICN. It is common that applications define their own naming convention (i.e., semantics of elements in the name hierarchy). Such names can often directly derived from application requirements, for example a name like /my-home/living-room/light/switch/main could be relevant in a smart home setting, and corresponding devices and application could use a corresponding convention to facilitate controllers finding sensors and actors in such a system with minimal user configuration.

Object-Security and Integrated Trust Model

One of the objection validation approaches is based on Public-Key cryptography, where publishers sign objects (parts of messages) and can name the Public Key in the message, so that a validator can retrieve the corresponding object (containing the Public Key and a certificate that would bind the key to a naming hierarchy). The certificate would be an element of a typical trust hierarchy.

Public-Key cryptography and PKI systems are also used in the Internet/Web today. In CCNx/NDN-based ICN, the key/certificate retrieval is directly provided by the network itself, i.e., it uses the same INTEREST/DATA protocol, and the system is typically used in a way that every object/message can be linked to a trust anchor.

Where that trust anchor resides is defined by the application semantics and its naming conventions. Unlike the Internet/Web today, it is not required to link to centralized trust anchors (such as root Certificate Authorities) — instead it is possible to set up local, decentralized trustworthy networked systems in a permissionless manner.

Stateful Forwarding

In CCNx and NDN, forwarders are stateful, i.e., they keep track of forwarded INTEREST to later match the received DATA messages. Stateful forwarding (in conjunction with the general named-based and location-independent operation) also empowers forwarders to execute individual forwarding strategies and perform optimizations such as in-network retransmissions, multicasting requests (in cases there are several opportunities for accessing a particular named data object) etc.

Stateful forwarding enables nodes in the network to perform similar function as endpoints (i.e., consumers), so that there is not a strong distinction between these roles. For example, consumers and forwarders can control INTEREST sending rates to respond to observed network conditions. Adapting in-network transport behavior can thus be achieved naturally, i.e., without brittle, in-transparent middleboxes, TCP proxies etc.

ICN Scenarios

ICN is a general-purpose networking technologies and can thus be applied to many scenarios. I am highlighting a few particularly interesting ones in the following sections.

Scalable Media Distribution

The “Accessing Named Data” paradigm also implies that CCNx/NDN-based ICN is fundamentally connectionless. While there can be collections of Named Data Objects that are requested (and transmitted) in a flow-like manner (as a consecutive series, sharing paths), a server (producer) does not have to maintain any client or connection state — one factor for making servers more scalable.

ICN forwarders can aggregate INTEREST received from different (for example, downstream) links for the same Named Data Object. Instead of forwarding the second, third etc. INTEREST for the same object, a forwarder (as part of its forwarding strategy) could decide to just record those INTERESTS (and note the interfaces they have been received from) and then later distribute the received object via all of these interfaces.

For live or near-live media distribution, this can enable an additional factor for scalability: 1) less INTERESTs are hitting the producers and 2) less INTEREST and DATA messages are transmitted over the network. Effectively, this behavior implement an implicit multicast-like tree-based distribution — without any explicit signaling and (inter-domain) multicast routing.

Finally in-network caching can further reduce upstream traffic, i.e., by answering requests for currently popular objects from a forwarder cache.

The corresponding gains have been demonstrated in Proof-of-Concept implementations, for example in Cisco’s hICN DASH-like video distribution system.

Multi-Access & Multi-Path Networking

Multi-Access networking is getting increasingly important as most mobile devices already provide at least two radio interfaces that can be used simultaneously. For example Apple’s Siri can use Multipath TCP for trying to obtain better performance by combining mobile network and WLAN interfaces and by jointly managing the available resources.

ICN communication is inherently multipath in a sense that ICN is not connection-based and that any forwarder can make independent forwarding decisions for multipath INTEREST forwarding. ICN’s location independence also enables a multidestination communication style: Named Data Object can be replicated in the network, so that the network could not only provide different paths to one producer but to many producers, which can increase network utilization and performance further.

These properties in conjunction with ICN’s stateful forwarding model enables several optimizations (both for window- as well as rate-based congestion controlled multipath communication) of MPTCP’s end-to-end control loop. An example of such an approach has been described by Mahdian et al..

Internet of Things (IoT)

IoT is a broad field, but often refers to 1) networking constrained devices and 2) communicating in local networks (that are not or should not be connected to the Internet on a permanent basis).

In low-power wireless networks with challenged connectivity, frequent power-saving and potentially node mobility, ICN can typically outperform IP-based technology stacks with respect to implementation simplicity, data availability and performance. The implementation simplicity stems from the ICN model of accessing named data directly, i.e., with integrated security and without the need for any resolution infrastructure and application layer protocols (in some IoT scenarios).

The data availability and performance improvements are caused by the stateful forwarding and opportunistic caching feature that are useful for multi-hop mesh networks with frequent connectivity changes due to sleep cycles and mobility. The stateful forwarding enables ICN to react more flexibly to changes, and in-network caching can keep data available in the network so that it can be retrieved at some time offset, for example when a sleeping wakes up and resumes communication with a next-hop node. Gündoğan et al. have performed an extensive analysis comparing NDN with CoAP and MQTT on large-scale IoT testbeds that demonstrated these benefits.

Computing in the Network

Recent advances in platform virtualization, link layer technologies and data plane programmability have led to a growing set of use cases where computation near users or data consuming applications is needed — for example for addressing minimal latency requirements for compute intensive interactive applications (networked Augmented Reality, AR), for addressing privacy sensitivity (avoiding raw data copies outside a perimeter by processing data locally), and for speeding up distributed computation by putting computation at convenient places in a network topology.

Most application layer frameworks suffer from being conceived as overlays, i.e., they can enable certain forms of optimization (such as function placement, scaling) — but do typically require centralized orchestration. Running as an overlay means, connecting compute functions through protocols such as TCP, requiring some form of resolution system that maps application-layer names to IP addresses etc.

Approaches such as Named Function Networking (NFN) and Remote Method Invocation for ICN (RICE) have demonstrated how the ICN approach of accessing named data in the network can be extended to accessing dynamic computation results, maintaining all the ICN security and forwarding/caching properties.

In such systems, computing and networking can be integrated in new ways, for example by allowing compute node to include knowledge about the ICN networks routing information base, currently observed availability and performance data for making offloading and scaling decisions. Consequentially, this enables a promising joint optimization of computing and networking resource that is especially attractive for fine-granular distributed system development.

Also see draft-kutscher-coinrg-dir for a general discussion of Computing in the Network.

The CCNx Specifications

The work on CCN started about 11 years ago in project led by Van Jacobson at PARC — in parallel with many other research projects on ICN such as NetInf, PURSUIT etc. The CCN work split up into branches later: NDN (maintained by the NDN NSN projects) and CCNx (maintained by PARC).

In 2016, Cisco acquired the CCNx technology and the software implementations from PARC and continued working on them in research and proof-of-concepts, and trials. The software has been made available as a sub-project in the fd.io project and is now called CICN, featuring support for the VPP framework in fd.io.

This implementation largely follows the specification in the now published CCNx RFCs which are products of the IRTF ICN Research Group.

RFC 8569 describes the core concepts of the Content-Centric Networking (CCNx) architecture and presents a network protocol based on two messages: Interests and Content Objects. It specifies the set of mandatory and optional fields within those messages and describes their behavior and interpretation. This architecture and protocol specification is independent of a specific wire encoding.

RFC 8609 specifies the encoding of CCNx messages in a TLV packet format, including the TLV types used by each message element and the encoding of each value. The semantics of CCNx messages follow the encoding-independent CCNx Semantics specification.

Both of these RFCs have been authored by Marc Mosko, Nacho Solis, and Chris Wood.

More Information

The IRTF ICN Research Group is an international research forum that covers research and experimentation work across the different ICN approaches and projects. Its goal is to promote experimentation and validation activities with ICN technology.

There is also a yearly academic conference under the ACM SIGCOMM
umbrella. The 2019 ICN conference takes place from September 24 to 26 in HongKong. Previous editions of the conference:

Written by dkutscher

July 11th, 2019 at 3:02 pm

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RFC 7927: Information-Centric Networking (ICN) Research Challenges

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We (ICNRG) published RFC 7927 on Information-Centric Networking (ICN) Research Challenges.

This memo describes research challenges for Information-Centric Networking (ICN), an approach to evolve the Internet infrastructure to directly support information distribution by introducing uniquely named data as a core Internet principle. Data becomes independent from location, application, storage, and means of transportation, enabling or enhancing a number of desirable features, such as security, user mobility, multicast, and in-network caching. Mechanisms for realizing these benefits is the subject of ongoing research in the IRTF and elsewhere. This document describes current research challenges in ICN, including naming, security, routing, system scalability, mobility management, wireless networking, transport services, in-network caching, and network management.

Information-Centric Networking (ICN) is an approach to evolve the Internet infrastructure to directly support accessing Named Data Objects (NDOs) as a first-order network service. Data objects become independent of location, application, storage, and means of transportation, allowing for inexpensive and ubiquitous in-network caching and replication. The expected benefits are improved efficiency and security, better scalability with respect to information/bandwidth demand, and better robustness in challenging communication scenarios.

ICN concepts can be deployed by retooling the protocol stack: name-based data access can be implemented on top of the existing IP infrastructure, e.g., by allowing for named data structures,
ubiquitous caching, and corresponding transport services, or it can be seen as a packet-level internetworking technology that would cause fundamental changes to Internet routing and forwarding. In summary, ICN can evolve the Internet architecture towards a network model based on named data with different properties and different services.

This document presents the ICN research challenges that need to be addressed in order to achieve these goals. These research challenges are seen from a technical perspective, although business relationships between Internet players will also influence developments in this area. We leave business challenges for a separate document, however. The objective of this memo is to document the technical challenges and corresponding current approaches and to expose requirements that should be addressed by future research work.

Continue reading…

Written by dkutscher

August 9th, 2016 at 3:51 pm

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Privacy, Performance, Protocols: ICN Researchers meet in Prague

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Prague

The IRTF Information-Centric Networking Research Group (ICNRG) had another ICN research fest with two meetings this week in Prague where IETF-93 is taking place.

ICN is an approach to evolve the Internet infrastructure to directly support information distribution by introducing uniquely named data as a core Internet principle. Data becomes independent from location, application, storage, and means of transportation, enabling in-network caching and replication. This enables the design of more robust, secure and better performing networked systems.

This week, more than 100 researchers got together to discuss recent advances in protocol development, performance optimizations, user privacy and new use cases.

ICNRG meeting

One of the protocols that are developed in ICNRG is CCNx, a network protocol that provides requests (Interests) for named data and Content Object responses. The protocol semantics are specified in draft-irtf-icnrg-ccnxsemantics, and the protocol format is specified in draft-irtf-icnrg-ccnxmessages. The ICN community is currently discussing several extensions to the protocol, including support for “manifest” objects, which would facilitate the distribution of larger, chunked objects and add additional performance and flexibility to ICN systems.

Another highlight of the meeting was a presentation by Iannis Psaras from UCL on Solving the Congestion Problem using ICNPrinciples, an approach that is using Resource Pooling as a tool to manage uncertainty in congestion management.

Vasilis Sourlas (UCL) presented Information Resilience through User-Assisted Caching in Disruptive Content-Centric Networks. The corresponding paper won the IFIP 2015 best paper award and describes work from the GreenICN project. The approach relies on a modified NDN router design that features a “Satisfied Interest Table” (SIT) that enables user-assisted caching.

Bengt Ahlgren (SICS) presented on the Applicability and Tradeoffs of ICN for Efficient IoT (draft-lindgren-icnrg-efficientiot). This document outlines the tradeoffs involved in utilizing Information Centric Networking (ICN) for the Internet of Things (IoT) scenarios. It describes the contexts and applications where the IoT would benefit from ICN, and where a host-centric approach would be better. The requirements imposed by the heterogeneous nature of IoT networks are discussed (e.g., in terms of connectivity, power availability, computational and storage capacity). Design choices are then proposed for an IoT architecture to handle these requirements, while providing efficiency and scalability. An objective is to not require any IoT specific changes of the ICN architecture per se, but we do indicate some potential modifications of ICN that would improve efficiency and scalability for IoT and other applications.

Dirk Trossen (Inter Digital) presented IPoverICN – the Better IP?, a presentation of the EU-H2020 POINT project that is developing an IP over ICN system. The hypothesis of this project is that IPoverICN has the potential to run IP services better than in standard IP networks.

Mark Stapp (Cisco) presented on Private Communication in ICN. This presentation asks the question whether ICN needs better privacy protection to achieve parity with IP for user privacy in the presence of ubiquitous encryption. The discussion initiated an intensive discussion on privacy requirements for ICN that will continue in upcoming meetings.

Jan Seedorf (NEC) presented on Using ICN in Disaster Scenarios (draft-seedorf-icn-disaster/). This is a presentation of the GreenICN project and summarized some research challenges for coping with natural or human-generated, large-scale disasters. Further, the document discusses potential directions for applying Information Centric Networking (ICN) to address these challenges.

All presentations and detailed notes can be found at the ICNRG Wiki.

This summer will host a series of additional ICN events:

  • ACM SIGCOMM ICN 2015 Conference in San Francisco (September 30 — October 2)
  • NDN Community meeting at UCLA (September 28 — 29)
  • ICNRG Interim Meeting in Palo Alto (October 3)
  • Written by dkutscher

    July 23rd, 2015 at 1:13 pm

    Posted in Posts

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    ICN Researchers Meet in Cambridge, MA

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    The ICN Research Group of the IRTF has met for a two day meeting in Cambridge, MA on January 13/14. More than 30 researchers from the US, Europe, China, and Japan gathered to discuss hot research topics in ICN such as:

    • Native ICN-based video streaming
    • Security (authenticated denial in ICN)
    • IoT and ICN
    • Hop-by-hop control messages in CCN
    • Named Function Networking

    In addition, different groups presented updates on their current implementations and their design decisions for packet formats and ICN protocols. For CCN-based protocols further steps towards a common format have been made.

    The next meeting (planned for the week of March 23rd in Dallas, at IETF-92) will continue the packet format discussion and progress new topics such as Named Function Networking.

     

    Written by dkutscher

    January 15th, 2015 at 3:42 pm

    Posted in Events

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